UGC NET Law Syllabus (Code No.: 58)

The UGC NET Law Syllabus encompasses jurisprudence, constitutional law, international law, criminal law, torts, commercial law, family law, and human rights, providing a holistic foundation for legal studies.

Unit I: Jurisprudence:

  1. Nature and Sources of Law: Foundational principles and origins of legal systems.
  2. Schools of Jurisprudence: Diverse philosophical approaches to law, such as natural law, positivism, and legal realism.
  3. Law and Morality: Interplay between legal norms and moral principles.
  4. Concept of Rights and Duties: Fundamental rights and corresponding duties within legal frameworks.
  5. Legal Personality: Legal status and rights of individuals and entities.
  6. Concepts of Property, Ownership, and Possession: Legal principles governing property rights and ownership.
  7. Concept of Liability: Legal responsibility for wrongful acts or omissions.
  8. Law, Poverty, and Development: Role of law in addressing poverty and fostering development.
  9. Global Justice: Legal mechanisms for achieving justice on an international scale.
  10. Modernism and Post-modernism: Contemporary perspectives on legal theory and practice.

Unit II: Constitutional and Administrative Law:

  1. Preamble, Fundamental Rights, and Duties: Foundational principles of constitutional governance, including fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.
  2. Union and State Executive and their Inter-relationship: Distribution of executive powers between the Union and States.
  3. Union and State Legislature and Distribution of Legislative Powers: Division of legislative authority under the Indian Constitution.
  4. Judiciary: Structure, functions, and independence of the judiciary.
  5. Emergency Provisions: Constitutional provisions related to the declaration of emergencies.
  6. Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions in Respect of Certain States: Special provisions for certain states under the Indian Constitution.
  7. Election Commission of India: Role and functions of the Election Commission in conducting free and fair elections.
  8. Nature, Scope, and Importance of Administrative Law: Principles governing administrative decision-making.
  9. Principle of Natural Justice: Principles of fairness and impartiality in administrative proceedings.
  10. Judicial Review of Administrative Actions – Grounds: Scope and limitations of judicial review in administrative law.

Unit III: Public International Law and IHL:

  1. International Law – Definition, Nature, and Basis: Principles and sources of international law.
  2. Sources of International Law: Sources of authority in international legal norms.
  3. Recognition of States and Governments: Criteria for recognition of states and governments.
  4. Nationality, Immigrants, Refugees, and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs): Legal principles related to citizenship and migration.
  5. Extradition and Asylum: Legal mechanisms for extradition and granting asylum to refugees.
  6. United Nations and its Organs: Structure and functions of the United Nations.
  7. Settlement of International Disputes: Mechanisms for peaceful resolution of international conflicts.
  8. World Trade Organization (WTO): Legal framework for international trade.
  9. International Humanitarian Law (IHL) - Conventions and Protocols: Legal norms governing armed conflict and protection of civilians.
  10. Implementation of IHL - Challenges: Challenges in implementation and enforcement of international humanitarian law.

Unit IV: Law of Crimes:

  1. General Principles of Criminal Liability: Fundamental principles of criminal responsibility, including actus reus and mens rea.
  2. Stages of Crime and Inchoate Crimes: Various stages of criminal acts, including abetment, criminal conspiracy, and attempt.
  3. General Exceptions: Legal defenses and exceptions to criminal liability.
  4. Offences against the Human Body: Crimes such as homicide, assault, and grievous hurt.
  5. Offences against the State and Terrorism: Crimes against the state, including sedition and acts of terrorism.
  6. Offences against Property: Crimes such as theft, robbery, and mischief.
  7. Offences against Women and Children: Legal provisions aimed at protecting women and children from various forms of abuse and exploitation.
  8. Drug Trafficking and Counterfeiting: Legal frameworks for combating drug trafficking and counterfeit activities.
  9. Offences against Public Tranquility: Crimes that disrupt public peace and order, including rioting and unlawful assembly.
  10. Theories and Kinds of Punishments, Compensation to the Victims of Crime: Different theories of punishment and mechanisms for compensating victims of crime.

Unit V: Law of Torts and Consumer Protection:

  1. Nature and Definition of Tort: Concept and scope of tort law.
  2. General Principles of Tortious Liability: Basic principles governing civil wrongs and liabilities.
  3. General Defenses: Defenses available to defendants in tort cases.
  4. Specific Torts: Specific torts like negligence, nuisance, trespass, and defamation.
  5. Remoteness of Damages: Concept of proximate cause and remoteness in tort law.
  6. Strict and Absolute Liability: Liability without fault in certain circumstances.
  7. Tortious Liability of the State: Liability of the government for tortious acts.
  8. Consumer Protection Act 1986: Consumer rights, redressal mechanisms, and legal provisions for consumer protection.
  9. The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988: Liability in motor vehicle accidents and insurance claims.
  10. The Competition Act, 2002: Provisions related to anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position in the market.

Unit VI: Commercial Law:

  1. Essential Elements of Contract and e-Contract: Components of a valid contract in traditional and electronic forms.
  2. Breach of Contract, Frustration of Contract, Void and Voidable Agreements: Remedies for breach of contract and the consequences of void and voidable agreements.
  3. Standard Form of Contract and Quasi-contract: Contracts with pre-drafted terms and obligations imposed by law.
  4. Specific Contracts: Specialized contracts like bailment, pledge, indemnity, guarantee, and agency.
  5. Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Legal provisions governing the sale of goods and related disputes.
  6. Partnership and Limited Liability Partnership: Legal frameworks for partnerships and LLPs.
  7. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Legal aspects of negotiable instruments like promissory notes, bills of exchange, and cheques.
  8. Company Law: Incorporation process, issuance of shares, and corporate governance.
  9. Corporate Social Responsibility: Legal obligations of corporations towards society and the environment.
  10. Company Law – Directors and Meetings: Role and responsibilities of directors and the conduct of board meetings.

Unit VII: Family Law:

  1. Sources and Schools: Various sources and jurisprudential schools of family law.
  2. Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage: Legal requirements for marriage and the procedures for divorce.
  3. Matrimonial Remedies: Legal remedies available to spouses in matrimonial disputes.
  4. Changing Dimensions of the Institution of Marriage: Evolving concepts like live-in relationships.
  5. Recognition of Foreign Decrees in India: Legal recognition of foreign judgments on marriage and divorce.
  6. Maintenance, Dower, and Stridhan: Legal provisions for financial support and dowry rights.
  7. Adoption, Guardianship, and Acknowledgment: Legal procedures for adoption, appointment of guardians, and acknowledgment of children.
  8. Succession and Inheritance: Laws governing the inheritance of property and succession rights.
  9. Will, Gift, and Wakf: Legal mechanisms for testamentary dispositions, gifts, and charitable endowments.
  10. Uniform Civil Code: Proposal for a uniform set of laws governing personal matters for all citizens irrespective of religion.

Unit VIII: Environment and Human Rights Law:

  1. Meaning and Concept of 'Environment' and 'Environmental Pollution': Scope of environmental law and its objectives.
  2. International Environmental Law and UN Conferences: International agreements and conventions addressing environmental issues.
  3. Constitutional and Legal Framework for Protection of Environment in India: Constitutional provisions and legislation aimed at environmental protection.
  4. Environmental Impact Assessment and Control of Hazardous Waste in India: Procedures for assessing environmental impacts and managing hazardous waste.
  5. National Green Tribunal: Role and functions of the NGT in adjudicating environmental disputes.
  6. Concept and Development of Human Rights: Evolution and significance of human rights principles.
  7. Universalism and Cultural Relativism: Debates surrounding the universality versus cultural specificity of human rights.
  8. International Bill of Rights: International instruments protecting human rights.
  9. Group Rights: Legal protections for vulnerable groups such as women, children, and minorities.
  10. Protection and Enforcement of Human Rights in India: Role of national commissions and bodies in safeguarding human rights.

Unit IX: Intellectual Property Rights and Information Technology Law:

  1. Concept and Meaning of Intellectual Property: Various forms of intellectual property and their significance.
  2. Theories of Intellectual Property: Philosophical and economic theories underlying the concept of intellectual property rights.
  3. International Conventions Pertaining to Intellectual Properties: International treaties and agreements governing intellectual property rights.
  4. Copyright and Neighboring Rights: Scope of copyright protection and related rights like performers' rights and broadcasting rights.
  5. Law of Patent: Legal framework for patent protection, including patentability criteria and infringement.
  6. Law of Trademark: Registration process, protection, and enforcement of trademarks.
  7. Protection of Geographical Indications: Legal mechanisms for safeguarding products with geographical indications.
  8. Bio-diversity and Traditional Knowledge: Legal frameworks for protecting biodiversity and traditional knowledge.
  9. Information Technology Law: Legal aspects of digital transactions, electronic governance, and cyber laws.
  10. Cyber Crimes, Penalties, and Adjudication: Legal provisions for combating cybercrimes and the penalties associated with them.

Unit X: Comparative Public Law and Systems of Governance:

  1. Comparative Law: Relevance, methodology, and challenges of comparing legal systems across different jurisdictions.
  2. Forms of Governments: Presidential and parliamentary systems, as well as unitary and federal structures.
  3. Models of Federalism: Federal structures in the USA, Canada, and India.
  4. Rule of Law: Formal and substantive conceptions of the rule of law and their application in different legal systems.
  5. Separation of Powers: Distribution of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches in India, UK, USA, and France.
  6. Independence of Judiciary, Judicial Activism, and Accountability: Role of the judiciary in upholding the rule of law and ensuring accountability.
  7. Systems of Constitutional Review: Mechanisms for constitutional review in India, USA, Switzerland, and France.
  8. Amendment of the Constitution: Procedures for amending constitutions in different countries.
  9. Ombudsman: Role and functions of ombudsman institutions in Sweden, UK, and India.
  10. Open Government and Right to Information: Legal frameworks promoting transparency and accountability in governance in the USA, UK, and India.